Teia anartoides Walker, 1855
Painted Apple Moth (PAM)
(one synonym: Orga phineus Herrich-Schäffer, [1858])
LYMANTRIIDAE,   NOCTUOIDEA
 
Don Herbison-Evans,
(donherbisonevans@outlook.com)
and
Stella Crossley


yellow form
(Photo: courtesy Merlin Crossley, Melbourne, Victoria)

This Caterpillar is usually brown and hairy, although the colour can vary from yellow to black. Whatever colour it is, characteristically it has four tufts of hair on the backs of abdominal segments 1-4. The colours of the four dorsal tufts, and of the head vary with instar. There is also also a hair tuft on its tail, and also two black tufts on its head pointing diagonally left and right like a pair of horns. Behind the dorsal tufts are two red markings, surrounding dorsal glands on segments 6 and 7.


dark form
(Photo: courtesy Elaine McDonald, Hobart, Tasmania)


young caterpillars ballooning
(Photo: courtesy of Rudie Kuiter, Aquatic Photographics, Victoria)
The hairs can cause skin irritation (urticaria) in people with sensitive skin.

The caterpillars have been found feeding on a variety of plants in suburban gardens including :

  • Dahlia ( Dahlia pinnata, ASTERACEAE ),
  • Cypress ( Cupressus, CUPRESSACEAE ),
  • Lupins ( Lupinus, FABACEAE ),
  • Geranium ( Pelargonium x zonale, GERANIACEAE ),
  • Gladiola ( Gladiolus byzantinus, IRIDACEAE ),
  • Albizia ( Albizia species, MIMOSACEAE ),
  • Banana Fruit ( Musa acuminata, MUSACEAE ),
  • Passionfruit ( Passiflora edulis, PASSIFLORACEAE ),
  • Primrose ( Primula, PRIMULACEAE ),
  • Roses ( Rosa odorata, ROSACEAE ),
  • Gardenia ( Gardenia jasminoides, RUBIACEAE ),
  • Willow ( Salix, SALICACEAE ),
  • Native Cherry ( Exocarpus cupressiformis, SANTALACEAE ),
  • Lantana ( Lantana camara, VERBENACEAE ).

    In plantation forests, they are a pest on :

  • Monterey Pine ( Pinus radiata, PINACEAE ).

    In the wild they feed on plants such as:

  • Coral Pea ( Hardenbergia species, FABACEAE ),
  • Wattles ( Acacia species, MIMOSACEAE ),
  • Bottlebrush ( Callistemon species, MYRTACEAE ),
  • Ferns ( POLYPODIOPHYTA ), and
  • Spider Flowers ( Grevillea species, PROTEACEAE ).

    The males caterpillars grow to a length of about 2 cms.
    The females grow to about 3 cms.


  • pupa in cocoon
    (Photo : courtesy of Lorraine Jenkins, Port Lincoln Junior Primary School, South Australia)

    They pupate amongst the leaves of the foodplant in a sparse cocoon that they decorate with hairs from their larval skin, making these cocoons likely to cause urticaria too. The adults emerge after a few days.


    flightless female, close-up
    (Photo: courtesy Elaine McDonald, Hobart, Tasmania)

    The female adult is dull brown with intersegmental fringes of pale hairs. She is fat and flightless. She stays beside her cocoon emitting a pheromone to attract males. She has a length of about 1 cm.


    eggs
    (Photo: courtesy Elaine McDonald, Hobart, Tasmania)

    She lays eggs on and around her cocoon after fertilisation. The egs are white and spherical.

    The male has light or dark brown patterned forewings, and yellow hind wings with a broad black margin. He has a wing span of about 2 cms.


    male

    Perhaps because the females being flightless, the newly hatched caterpillars have a special way of dispersing by spinning threads of silk which are caught in the wind ("ballooning"). So the species is found over most of Australia, including

  • Queensland,
  • New South Wales,
  • Australian Capital Territory,
  • Victoria,
  • Tasmania, and
  • South Australia.

    They seem to have ballooned their way across the Tasman because the species appeared in

  • New Zealand.

    So far this species has not spread beyond Australasia, although related and similar species occur in America.


    male
    (Specimen: courtesy of the Macleay Museum, University of Sydney)

    The sex pheromone components of this species has been determined by an international research team of Dr. Gerhard Gries (Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby, B.C., Canada), Dr. John Clearwater (Clearwater Research & Consulting, Auckland, NZ) and Dr. Paul W. Schaefer (U.S. Dept. of Agric., Beneficial Insect Introd. Lab., Newark, USA). In December 2003, John Clearwater and Paul Schaefer completed the final field confirmation trapping in Campbelltown, NSW, using a completely synthetic lure, which proved to be very effective at attracting the males into traps. Therefore, there is now a powerful field sampling tool for population assessment, clarification of distribution or habitat preference, or behavior studies. This research was supported in part by Global Forest, an international research institute based in Banff, Alberta, Canada.


    mating pair
    (Photo: courtesy Elaine McDonald, Hobart, Tasmania)

    Control of the species is being attempted using:

  • extracts from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis
  • the release of irradiated (infertile) males, and
  • natural fly and wasp predators.


    pale and dark males attracted to the same female
    (Photo: courtesy of Rudie Kuiter, Aquatic Photographics, Victoria)


    Further reading :

    David Carter,
    Butterflies and Moths, Collins Eyewitness Handbooks, Sydney 1992, p. 271.

    Ian F.B. Common,
    Moths of Australia, Melbourne University Press, 1990, pl. 18.9, pp. 70, 428.

    Pat and Mike Coupar,
    Flying Colours, New South Wales University Press, Sydney 1992, p. 65.

    Peter Marriott,
    Moths of Victoria: Part 2,
    Tiger Moths and their Allies - Noctuoidea (A)
    ,
    Entomological Society of Victoria, 2009, pp. 16-19.

    Linda Rogan,
    Painted Apple (or Acacia) Moth Teia anartoides,
    Metamorphosis Australia,
    Issue 58 (September 2010), pp. 14-18,
    Butterflies and Other Invertebrates Club.

    Francis Walker,
    Catalogue of Lepidoptera Heterocera,
    List of the Specimens of Lepidopterous Insects in the Collection of the British Museum,
    Part 4 (1855), p. 804.

    Paul Zborowski and Ted Edwards,
    A Guide to Australian Moths, CSIRO Publishing, 2007, p. 177.


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    (updated 29 January 2013, 6 December 2017)