Papilio demoleus Linnaeus, 1758
Lime or Chequered Swallowtail
Don Herbison-Evans
Stella Crossley

Papilio demoleus
early instar
(Photo: courtesy of Wes Jenkinson)

The Caterpillars of this species are varied in their colouring, in early instars but often become green in later instars. They often have a pale line each side just above the legs. Early instars have short spines along the body, and longer ones on the thorax and ninth abdominal segment. In later instars these spines degenerate to coloured knobs.

Papilio demoleus
late instar
(Photo: courtesy of Peter Samson)

In Australia the caterpillars feed on various plants in FABACEAE such as

  • Emu Foot ( Cullen tenax ),
  • Tall Verbine ( Cullen australasicum ),
  • Annual Verbine ( Cullen cinereum ),
  • Spreading Scurf Pea ( Cullen patens ),
  • African Scurf Pea ( Psoralea pinnata ),

    and plants in RUTACEAE such as :

  • Lemon ( Citrus limon ),
  • Tangerine ( Citrus reticulata ),
  • Wild Orange ( Microcitrus australis ), and
  • Curry Leaf Tree, ( Murraya koenigii ).

    Papilio demoleus
    (Photo courtesy of Wes Jenkinson)

    The Caterpillar grows to a length of about 4 cms. The pupa is greenish-brown and attached to a stem of the foodplant by cremaster and girdle. It has two projections on the head and one on the thorax. Its length is about 3 cms.

    Papilio demoleus
    (Photo: courtesy of Trevor Jinks, North Burnett, Queensland)

    The adult butterflies have buff coloured wings with wide black edges containing buff spots. The hind wings also have two eyespots: one red and one blue.

    Papilio demoleus
    (Photo: courtesy of Todd Burrows, South Stradbroke Island, Queensland)

    The underside is similar with narrower and paler black markings. The butterflies have a wingspan of about 10 cms.

    Papilio demoleus
    (Photo: courtesy of Gary Brooks, Tinnanbar, Queensland)

    Usually seen rapidly flying in one direction at a constant height, they only occasionally land, and catching one is a real thrill.

    Papilio demoleus
    (Photo: courtesy of Wes Jenkinson)

    The eggs are pale yellow and spherical. They are usuallly laid singly on the upper surfaces of leaves of a foodplant.

    The species Papilio demoleus occurs as a number of subspecies over much of tropical Asia, including :

  • Christmas Island,
  • India,
  • Malaysia,
  • New Guinea,
  • Taiwan.
    It has recently been reported in the Caribbean in
  • Puerto Rico.

    Papilio demoleus
    (Photo: courtesy of Gary Brooks, Tinnanbar, Queensland)

    The subspecies sthenelus is found in New Guinea and the whole of mainland Australia including:

  • Northern Territory,
  • Queensland,
  • New South Wales,
  • Victoria, and
  • South Australia.

    Papilio demoleus
    Kampuchea 1986

    This species is featured at Coffs Harbour Butterfly House. Butterflies of this species may be purchased for release at weddings etc.

    Further reading :

    Michael F. Braby,
    Butterflies of Australia,
    CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne 2000, vol. 1, pp. 274-276.

    Amanda Johnston,
    From a Wetland Garden,
    Metamorphosis Australia,
    Issue 62 (September 2011), pp. 21-22,
    Butterflies and Other Invertebrates Club.

    Ross Kendall,
    Images of Butterfly Larvae,
    Metamorphosis Australia,
    Issue 55 (December 2009), p. 32,
    Butterflies and Other Invertebrates Club.

    Ross Kendall,
    Three amigos,
    Metamorphosis Australia,
    Issue 67 (December 2012), p. 32,
    Butterflies and Other Invertebrates Club.

    Carl Linnaeus,
    Insecta Lepidoptera,
    Systema Naturae,
    , Volume 1, Edition 10 (1760), Class 5, Part 3, p. 464, No. 35.

    Australian Butterflies
    Australian Moths

    (updated 16 Spetember 2010, 24 October 2016)