Cadra cautella (Walker, 1863)
Almond Moth
(previously known as Ephestia cautella)
PHYCITINI ,   PHYCITINAE ,   PYRALIDAE ,   PYRALOIDEA
  
Don Herbison-Evans
(donherbisonevans@outlook.com)
and
Stella Crossley


(Picture: courtesy of Casa Bernardo, Brasil)

This Caterpillar is an international agricultural pest, particularly of

  • Flowers of Date Palms ( Phoenix dactylifera, ARECACEAE ),
  • Peanuts ( Arachis hypogaea, FABACEAE ),
  • Kernels of Tree Beans ( Parkia timoriana, MIMOSACEAE ),
  • stored grain, and
  • dried fruit.

    The Caterpillar grows to a length of about 1 cm.

    When one Caterpillar encounters another, they each produce a small amount of brown liquid from the mouth, and this causes the Caterpillars to walk apart. This appears to be a mechanism that prevents overcrowding of the Caterpillars. Unfortunately for the Caterpillars, this mandibular secretion also attracts parasitoid wasps such as Venturia canescens ( ICHNEUMONIDAE ).


    (Photo: courtesy of Laura Levens, Upper Beaconsfield, Victoria)

    The adult moths are fawn coloured, with a fringe on the back of each hind wing. The wingspan is about 2 cms. The males and females come together using pheromones the chemical nature of which have been identified. The females emit these chamicals and the males sense them and fly to the female. The adults also use ultrasonic sounds (~80 Khz) in their courtship behaviour.


    (Picture: courtesy of Casa Bernardo, Brasil)

    The species occurs world-wide, for example :

  • Hawaii,
  • Iran,
  • Sri Lanka,
  • Sweden,
  • U.K.,
  • U.S.A.,

    as well as being introduced by unfortunate accident into Australia, where it occurs widely, including

  • Northern Territory,
  • Queensland,
  • New South Wales,
  • Victoria,
  • Tasmania,
  • South Australia, and
  • Western Australia.

    Attempts to control the pest have used :

  • Methyl Bromide,
  • various insecticides,
  • Plant Essential Oils,
  • a Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus,
  • water-kerosene oil-mixture trap,
  • the toxin from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis( BACILLACEAE ),
       (limited by the Caterpillars developing resistance to the toxin),
  • the wasp Bracon hebetor ( BRACONIDAE ), and
  • pheromone lures.


    Further reading :

    Ian F.B. Common,
    Moths of Australia,
    Melbourne University Press, 1990, p. 350.

    Bibliography of the Almond Moth,
    Ohio Agricultural Reseach and Development Center.

    Francis Walker,
    Crambites and Tortricites,
    List of the Specimens of Lepidopterous Insects in the Collection of the British Museum,
    Part 27 (1863), p. 73, No. 27.


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    (updated 21 August 2012, 18 April 2014)