Plodia interpunctella (Hübner, 1813)
Indian Meal Moth
(one synonym : Tinea zeae Fitch, 1856)
PHYCITINI ,   PHYCITINAE ,   PYRALIDAE ,   PYRALOIDEA
 
Don Herbison-Evans
(donherbisonevans@outlook.com)
and
Stella Crossley


This Caterpillar is white with a brown head, and sparse long white hairs. It is a pest both in Australia and overseas, of any stored foodstuff, for example:

  • grain, and
  • fruit and nuts.

    As it infests these foodstuffs, it makes a sparse web of silk.

    When one caterpillar encounters another, they each produce a small amount of brown liquid from the mouth, and this causes the caterpillars to walk apart. This appears to be a mechanism that prevents overcrowding of the caterpillars. Unfortunately for the caterpillars, this mandibular secretion also attracts parasitoid wasps.


    pupa
    (Specimen: courtesy of Pauli Tritter, Leamington Spa, U.K.)

    The caterpillar typically walks several metres from its foodstuff to pupate in a sparse silk cocoon. The pupa is brown with prominent bulges where the eyes develop.


    (Photo: copyright and courtesy of Joyce Gross, Berkeley Natural History Museums, University of California,)

    The adult is brown, with a pale basal area on each forewing demarked by a dark line. The hindwings are plain off-white. The moths have a wingspan of about 1.5 cms.


    drawing by Jacob Hübner,
    Sammlung Europäischer Schmetterlinge,

    Lepidoptera 8 (1813), Plate 45 (Tinea 5), fig. 310,
    image courtesy of Biodiversity Heritage Library, digitized by Ernst Mayr Library, Harvard University.

    The adult females are attracted to lay eggs on substrates contaminated by wandering fifth instar larvae. The adults use ultrasonic sounds (~80 Khz) in their courtship behaviour. They also use pheromones (specific sex-attractant substances) the nature of which have been determined. Domestic pheromone traps can be purchased to control the moths. The authors found that these can have an embarrassing effect if used in the home, as some pheromone condenses on clothing. Then when one then walks around a supermarket (where inevitably there will be some of these moths present), rather embarrassingly: they cluster and flutter around one's body.

    Attempts have also been made to control the pest using :

  • light and heat [Rutter RR, Ferkovich SM],
  • ultrasound [Huang F, Taylor R]
  • gamma ray irradiation [Ashrafi SH, Roppel RM],
  • pheromones,
  • Pyriproxyfen (egg hatching preventative) [Silhacek D],
  • organophosphate Dust [Mejia D],
  • Granulovirus PiGV ( BACULOVIRIDAE ) [Cheng CH],
  • the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis ( BACILLACEAE ) or its toxin [Oppert B, Loseva O, Candas M, Bulla LA],
  • the fungi Beauveria bassiana, Paecilomyces farinosus and Paecilomyces fumosoroseus [Bischoff, R],
  • the egg-parasitoid wasp Trichogramma evanescens ( TRICHOGRAMMATIDAE ) [Scholler M, Prozell SJ],
  • the wasp Bracon hebetor ( BRACONIDAE ) [Baker J, Brower J],
  • the wasp Venturia canescens ( ICHNEUMONIDAE ) [Dreissen G, Bernstein C, Van Alphen JJM, Kacelnik A]
  • the Warehouse Pirate Bug Xylocoris flavipes ( ANTHOCORIDAE ) [Semple RL, et al],
  • the predacious bug Joppeicus paradoxus ( JOPPEICIDAE ) [Miyanpshita A, Imamura T, Visarathanonth P],
  • using Transgenic Corn [Sedlacek JD, Komaravalli SR, Hanley AM, Price BD, Davis PM].

    This species originated in Europe, but now occurs world-wide, for example:

  • Algeria,
  • Korea,
  • Pakistan,
  • U.K., and
  • U.S.A.,

    and over the whole of Australia (having been introduced by unfortunate accident) including:

  • Australian Capital Territory,
  • Victoria,
  • South Australia, and
  • Western Australia.


    Further reading :

    Ian F.B. Common
    Moths of Australia,
    Melbourne University Press, 1990, pp. 57, 68, 350.

    Jacob Hübner,
    Sammlung Europäischer Schmetterlinge,
    Lepidoptera 8 (1813), Plate 45 (Tinea 5), fig. 310.

    M.S. Mossadegh,
    Inter- and intra-specific effects of the mandibular gland secretion of larvae of the Indian-meal moth, Plodia interpunctella,
    Physiological Entomology,
    Volume 5 (1980), pp. 165-173.

    J.K. Waage,
    Arrestment responses of the parasitoid, Nemeritis canescens, to a contact chemical produced by its host, Plodia interpunctella,
    Physiological Entomology,
    Volume 3 (1978), pp. 135-146.


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    (updated 2 February 2010, 27 July 2015)