Galleria mellonella (Linnaeus, 1758)
Greater Wax Moth
(one synonym : (Galleria austrina Felder & Rogenhofer, 1875)
GALLERIINAE,   PYRALIDAE,   PYRALOIDEA
 
Don Herbison-Evans
(donherbisonevans@outlook.com)
and
Stella Crossley

Galleria mellonella
(Photo: courtesy of H. A. Turney Texas A&M University)

The Caterpillars of this moth are an international pest in beehives, tunneling through the combs, feeding on pollen, wax and honey. Their preference is for abandoned hives, or hives where the colony has been weakened. As well as eating wax, they have also been found to be able to digest polytheene plastic

The caterpillars are a pale honey colour with a brown head. They are used to study insect physiology, and they make excellent bait for fishing. They are often used for the study of Nematodes.

Galleria mellonella
cocoon
(Photo: courtesy of Dr. Toru Shimada, Tokyo University)

The Caterpillars make white cocoons in the hive, which shield the orange pupa.

Galleria mellonella
pupa
(Photo: courtesy of The BioZentrum, University of Wurzberg)

The adult moth has brown forewings each with vague markings, and a broad red band along the inner margin containing black spots. The hindwings are white. The moth has a wing span of about 3 cms. The moths are capable of hearing sounds up to 300KHz, which includes the range commonly used by bats to echo-locate moths.

Galleria mellonella
(Photo: courtesy of Donald Hobern, Aranda, Australian Capital Territory)

The female moth often lays over 1,000 eggs, usually in batches of about 100. They are laid in cracks or corners. The eggs are also a pale honey colour, oval, and about 0.5 mm across. They are well camouflaged and easily overlooked.

Galleria mellonella
female, drawing by Rudolf Felder, listed as Galleria austrina
,
Zoologische Theil, Lepidoptera, Reise der Osterreichischen Fregatte Novara,
Band 2, Abtheilung 2 (1875), Plate CXXXVII, fig. 7,
image courtesy of Biodiversity Heritage Library, digitized by Smithsonian Libraries.

Attempts are being made to control the pest by :

  • heating the combs,
  • freezing the combs,
  • the gas carbon dioxide,
  • the gas sulphur dioxide,
  • the gas phosphine,
  • acetic and formic acids,
  • paradichlorobenzene,
  • pheromone traps,
  • a baculovirus,
  • the parvovirus "gmDNV",
  • the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis ( BACILLACEAE ),
  • toxin extracts from Bacillus thuringiensis,
  • the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa,
  • the nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora ( HETERORHABDITIDAE ),
  • the egg parasite wasps Trichogramma species,
  • the wasp Apanteles galleriae ( BRACONIDAE ),
  • the fly Archytas marmoratus ( TACHINIDAE ),
  • apiary hygiene, and
  • using races of bees that resist it, such as Italian Bees.

    The moth species is found all over the world, for example :

  • Brazil,
  • Canada,
  • Russia,
  • South Africa,
  • U.K.,
  • U.S.A.,

    and was introduced by unfortunate accident into Australia, and now occurs in :

  • Queensland,
  • New South Wales,
  • Australian Capital Territory,
  • Victoria,
  • Tasmania,
  • South Australia, and
  • Western Australia.


    Further reading :

    Ian F.B. Common,
    Moths of Australia,
    Melbourne University Press, 1990, fig. 31.6, pp. 47, 68, 347.

    Rudolf Felder & Alois F. Rogenhofer,
    Zoologische Theil, Lepidoptera,
    Reise der Osterreichischen Fregatte Novara,
    Band 2, Abtheilung 2 (5) (1875), p. 10, and also Plate 137, fig. 7.

    Carl Linnaeus,
    Insecta Lepidoptera,
    Systema Naturae,
    Edition 10, Volume 1 (1760), Class 5, Part 3, p. 537, No. 257.


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    (updated 7 May 2008, 19 September 2017)